A Trip down Memory Lane and a Peep into the Future of Drama in Education

A Trip down Memory Lane and a Peep into the Future of Drama in Education

April  2005

Susan Battye

Tena Kotuou e hoa ma!

This must indeed be a rare occasion in the history of New Zealand’s education system: the 20th anniversary of a subject association. If I were to think of a motto for the New Zealand Association for Drama in Education, now known as Drama New Zealand, it would have to be “Network! Network! Network!” For that is what we’ve all been doing locally, regionally, nationally and internationally for the past twenty years.

Act One of this drama introduced a cast of thousands with a core cast of dedicated members of the National Executive. These people, many of whom are among us today, have toiled tirelessly to advocate for Drama both as a subject and as a method of delivery of the curriculum in the classroom. They have become advisors, moderators, examiners, national curriculum developers and assessment administrators for the subject. And I would like to point out that the vast majority of those who have done so much for this association are women.

NZADIE’s  sphere of influence has stretched far and wide into: Colleges of Education, Universities, theatre companies, the Ministry of Education, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Creative New Zealand, the Shakespeare Globe Foundation, Playmarket, publishing houses, the Speech Communication Association, the Council for International Development, the International Drama and Theater in Education Association, (IDEA) Drama Australia, SCYPT, National Theatre, U.K., the East African Theatre Institute, Uganda Chapter, and private enterprise.

I would like here to pay particular tribute to Jeremy Collins, Director of Selecon Lighting, who has personally continued to take an interest in the association and fund its activities by providing stage lighting workshops for teachers and continuous sponsorship for the journal over the past 20 years. I know that throughout the regions we have had many other supporters from the commercial sector with whom we have a good working relationship.

I am indebted to my former employer, Epsom Girls Grammar School for its support of my own work for the association throughout that period and I would particularly like to thank my former colleague, Ian Allan, our website editor for his continued dedication to the cause and all those who, like myself, have served at one time or another as editors of the journal.

NZADIE is internationally seen as a prestigious professional association, known to be reliable for its continuous activity, independent and forward thinking and for its grassroots support of all those involved in the field of drama in education, regardless of where they come from be it Early Childhood, Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Education, amateur or professional theatre, Youth Theatre, Theatre in Education, Theatre for Development, Theatre of Healing or Children’s Theatre. All of these realms of drama and theatre have been represented at our annual national conferences and regional workshops at one time or other.

Our supporting cast consists of all those who have continued to recognize NZADIE as the official association for Drama in Education in New Zealand. These people utilize us as curriculum and assessment resource writers, researchers, building consultants, funding referees, decision makers, ‘stargazers’, and they act on our ideas, fund our activities in one way or another and welcome us to their conferences and World Congresses. They follow our website and value the regular newsletters from our president and our members who have become their advisers.

As one of the people who founded NZADIE and created the constitution which underpins this Incorporated Society, I can tell you something about the way it came into being. When I wrote my dissertation for an M.A. in Education Studies at Loughborough University about the visits of Dorothy Heathcote to New Zealand, I also looked at the history of Drama in Education in this country.[1]

With this in mind, first and foremost I bring you greetings on this special occasion of our 20th birthday from our patron, Mrs Dorothy Heathcote. I received this letter from her, written on the 24th March this year from her home in Spondon, Derby, England, where she now lives with her daughter, Marianne, her son-in-law and granddaughter. As you can tell from this letter, Mrs Heathcote takes her duties as patron very seriously and she is a regular reader of our journal, to which she has a life subscription. The letter reads:

“Dear Susan

I’ve just received the latest NZADIE material so I’m writing to ask if you will please pass on to the ‘Futures’ conference in April my very warm good wishes for a successful event and particularly my congratulations on achieving 20 years. Let’s hope for great happenings in the next 20 years!”

“Please remember me to all friends whom I remember vividly of course – and all the children I taught during my first visit – and those I met on the “ Captain Cook” year when you and your team worked so hard. All the NZ videos are now with the H. (Heathcote) Archive in Manchester Metropolitan University and I believe it is very much consulted.”

She goes on to say,

“It’s more useful at Man. Met in the Education/ drama section. “

And then she adds characteristically last, but not least,

“On May 8th at Newcastle Uni I am to be “Doctored” so I’ll be D.Litt after then – Fancy that for an ex hill weaver.

Much love

Dorothy.”

I know that you would want to join with me in wishing our patron “all the best ‘ for her ‘doctoring’ and I hope that the incoming executive will find a way to mark the occasion. It is particularly heartwarming and somewhat daunting to know that Dorothy Heathcote continues to read everything we write in our journals.

Her reference to the New Zealand materials may need some explanation. In 1993 The Dorothy Heathcote Archives were opened at Lancaster University where the intention was to put on line via the internet the contents of more than 2000 items including my own dissertation, accumulated during her time as Senior Lecturer at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. In the end this did not happen, hence the move to Man. Met.[2]

Ralph McAllister, the former lecturer in Drama at the Wellington College of Education, and I took a large number of copies of books, monographs and video tapes from the time of Dorothy’s visits to New Zealand to the Lancaster conference. A video programme made at the time, provides a good record of the thoughts of many of her former students and about her early history as a drama teacher. New Zealand was, in fact, the only country to make such a significant bequest at that time.

Dorothy Heathcote or ‘D.H.’ as she was known to her students, came into my life via a BBC Omnibus film, Three Looms Waiting – hence the reference to the ex weaver. The day I showed that 16 millimetre film to a bunch of noisy fourth formers in a dusty Greymouth High School prefab, my life changed. I knew that this was the person I wanted to learn from most on the planet and that her methodology would change my teaching practice forever.

The title of this keynote address, E Hao ki te Taonga Pounamu: Seek the Revered Treasure– A Trip down Memory Lane and a Peep into the Future, reflects two things. Firstly, this whakatauki or proverb was given to us by a kaumatua from Te Wananga O Aotearoa, where I now work, for use in the renaming of our association as Drama New Zealand. It is therefore fitting that I should give the whakatauki life in this address. Maori people believe that we walk backwards into the future with our arms held out to embrace the past with all its glories and indiscretions. I believe that as an association, we must look to the past in order to move forward into the future. So let’s begin our journey down memory lane.

The origins of our association are closely associated with the development of ‘drama in the classroom’ as it was commonly known in the 70’s and with the development of amateur and professional theatre and theatre in education throughout New Zealand. In this address I’d like to firstly paint the picture of the pathway that led to the formation of this national association in 1985, secondly to describe something of the period of the association’s work in the last two decades and thirdly to look to its future.

What were the origins of drama education in New Zealand?

In 1937 the New Education Fellowship Conference in New Zealand looked at the role of creative education and embraced the concept of child-centred education. (Lomas 1982) It was John Dewey (1859 -1952) who ” made an impassioned plea for education to be concerned with life rather than education for life and that it should be both child-and subject centred.”1  This principle, which was endorsed by the Labour government of the day became fundamental to our education system and influenced many aspects of learning in this country; including the development of drama.

The child-centred approach found expression in the curriculum development of the 1950’s in art and crafts, physical education dance and creative movement. This experiment continued into the 1960’s. At that time teachers in colleges of education were to a large extent following the work of British drama educators, Brian Way and Peter Slade and drama in secondary schools was focussed on the performance of plays.

In 1964 British drama educator, Maisie Cobby, visited New Zealand and brought New Zealanders up to date with developments in Britain and in 1966 John Osborne from the New Zealand Department of Education began the development of a much needed drama handbook for forms 1 to 4, (Upper primary and junior secondary school).  (Lomas 1982) Ironically, almost as soon as it was published, the `creative drama’ approach of the book was perceived to be out of date by teachers who were becoming aware of developments in drama in Britain.

How did Teacher Training in Drama develop?

Anne Todd, a drama teacher and professional actor from Britain, pioneered the development of drama in Colleges of Education in New Zealand. She was the first person to be appointed lecturer in the `Expressive Arts’ at the Auckland Teachers’ Training College, (later to be called the Auckland College of Education) in the 1970’s.

Anne Todd supported the idea of introducing drama as a subject in schools. She felt that the three year primary course which had been introduced for primary teachers in 1969 lent itself to providing students with an excellent opportunity to experience drama themselves before trying it out in the classroom. She continued to have a close involvement in curriculum development in drama throughout the 1970’s and early 1980’s until her retirement in 1984. (Lomas 1982)

Three lecturers; in particular, Don McAra from Christchurch Secondary Teachers College, Pam Woolf from Christchurch Primary Teachers’ College and Ralph McAllister from the Wellington Teachers’ College were to become very committed to the work of Dorothy Heathcote, senior lecturer in education from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, during the early seventies. All three were to be influential in the formation of this Association.

What support did the Department of Education give to the development of Drama?

Curriculum officers in the Department of Education came into existence in 1962. The philosophy of the curriculum development unit was `equality of opportunity for all’, especially with regard to the production of state funded resources. Curriculum officers were neither inspectors nor members of the advisory service and as such have played a unique role in our education system. They reported directly to the Director-General of Education and were required to make fellow officers aware of areas of overlap in curriculum matters.

In 1975 Sunny Amey was appointed Curriculum Officer for drama by Bill Renwick, the then Director-General of Education. Sunny Amey had an extensive background in speech education and in the professional theatre both in New Zealand and Britain. Here in Wellington she is best known perhaps for the fact that she was Downstage Theatre’s founding director and for her involvement in the founding of the Te Whaea, the New Zealand School of Drama.[3]

What role did the New Zealand Theatre Federation play in the development of Drama in Education?

At the time when Sunny Amey took up the position of Curriculum Officer for drama, the New Zealand Theatre Federation, an association of amateur repertory societies, was offering support through summer schools and competitions to many adults and students with an interest in drama throughout New Zealand.

In the provinces, particularly, teachers saw these societies as a place to learn theatre skills, which they could then utilise in their designated responsibility to `put on the school production.’ In the absence of drama in-service training opportunities, these societies were a good training ground.

How did Theatre in Education Develop?

In terms of the development of Theatre in Education, over a twenty year period in the 1940’s and 1950’s the Community Arts Service or CAS as it was known, toured extensively in the Auckland Region, bringing theatre and ballet to every school hall.

Later during the sixties and seventies there were a number of touring companies at work in New Zealand such as the New Zealand Players, and  Southern Comedy Players as well as solo performers, which presented polished pieces of work, often excerpts from recognised plays, particularly Shakespeare, to students throughout New Zealand.

The initial interest in theatre in education was to continue with the development of the professional community theatres in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Most community theatres had an education officer in their midst during the 1970’s and early 1980’s. In Auckland, for example, Gill Sutton’s Theatre Corporate actors toured their schools’ programme, which was often based on the company’s main bill, by day and performed the full text of the play by night.

What role did the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council play in the development of Drama in Education?

Much of the development of drama in education and theatre in education which has taken place in this country has been due to the encouragement of the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council. Formerly the Arts Council, and now Creative New Zealand, the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council came into existence in 1963.

By 1974 the policy of the Council was to promote professional standards in the arts in New Zealand. The council, in partnership with the former Department of Education, supported teachers, professional theatre practitioners, and theatre in education companies, which were known as Performers in Schools. By 1992 the Ministry of Education had withdrawn most of its support leaving such decisions up to individual school boards to support artists in schools.

Today, Creative New Zealand lends its support to the practising artist and to theatre companies rather than to projects related to drama in education or theatre in education as such and continues to insist that it is not there to provide ongoing funding for theatre in education companies as such. The expectation is that the Ministry of Education will fund such activities. In the end the schools themselves decide on an individual basis which theatre companies they will welcome through their doors based largely on previous experience and cost factors.

One of the early initiatives of the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council was to support the establishment of the New Zealand School of Drama in 1970 with Nola Millar, a veteran of the theatre scene, at the helm. The school has continued to flourish and was brought under the arm of the Ministry of Education in the early 1990’s, together with the New Zealand School of Dance.

In 1975 the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council of New Zealand set up the Performers in Schools Fund which began in a limited way to support theatre in education work in schools. (Lomas 1982)

It became a function of the Curriculum Officer’s job to support theatre in education initiatives through representation on the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council and thus a close tie between artists and teachers began to develop. At the same time the New Zealand Theatre Federation had become aware of the work of Dorothy Heathcote and had issued an invitation to her to come to New Zealand. Sunny Amey, the Curriculum Officer for Drama was put in charge of the project when it was handed over to the Education Department.

Teachers were to be released to take part in the viewing of the work in primary, intermediate and secondary schools throughout the country. Vince Catherwood, a former curriculum officer for English commented,

“Dorothy Heathcote’s visit established a climate of interest in and commitment to drama in education in schools in New Zealand which Sunny (Amey) was able to foster through her curriculum development work.”2

The Dorothy Heathcote visit had a profound effect on the many teachers and members of the public who came in contact with her during the month long visit of July 1978. Her child-centred approach to learning was of particular interest to educators throughout the country and her emphasis on working with the intellectually handicapped, which was seen at the time as being the `Cinderella’ area of education, also created strong interest.

How did Post Graduate Training in Drama in Education develop?

In 1980 an Advanced Studies for Teachers Unit paper in drama was organised through the Continuing Education of Teachers arm of the Colleges of Education largely as a result of work by Ralph McAllister, Senior Lecturer in Drama at the Wellington College of Education and others. This system, which gave Primary teachers in particular, the possibility of gaining credits for qualifications, was a very useful vehicle for developing drama courses which were devised and adapted by a number of College of Education Teachers.

What developments occurred following the Visit of Dorothy Heathcote?

The network of drama teachers which had begun with the bringing together of many teachers during the 1978 visit of Dorothy Heathcote was strengthened by the establishment of the Drama Newsletter in 1979. The current owner of the highly successful Women’s Bookshop in Auckland, and former Auckland Girls’ Grammar School Teacher, Carole Beu Barrington (as she was known) established this newsletter.

Subsequently some teachers travelled to Britain, with the assistance of the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council, the Education Department or the British Council to work for extended periods with Dorothy Heathcote and other British drama educators such as Gavin Bolton. A curriculum working group was also established in New Zealand. Most of those teachers have had a significant role to play in the formation of the association including; Carole Beu, Sunny Amey, Kathryn Whillans, Don McAra, Sally Markham, Ralph McAllister, Kerry Harvey, and Jill Burdett.

Course development in drama during the 1980’s focussed on third and fourth forms, (thirteen and fourteen year olds) within individual schools and sixth form certificate (sixteen and seventeen year olds) within individual schools as well as at a national level. Primary and Early Childhood educators devised their own courses, bringing drama into a programme often under the umbrella of language, art or social studies as part of a theme or experiential approach. Numbers of teachers experimented with role work during this period.

No formal qualifications were required to teach the courses and teachers approached the subject from dance, improvisation, speech and drama, and personal relationship course perspectives. This situation still existed into the 1990’s. Advisors in drama were spasmodically appointed during the 1980’s in response to local demands and whilst there were no inspectors of drama in the Department, many English inspectors supported drama initiatives throughout the country by establishing short courses for teachers.

How did the visit of Dorothy Heathcote in1984 come about?

Plans were made for a return visit of Dorothy Heathcote for July 1984 and during the Election Day 1984 over 200 people attended a public lecture at the North Shore Teachers’ College in Auckland. As with the previous visit considerable funding was spent by the Department of Education bringing hundreds of teachers together and recording aspects of the visit through the Audio – Visual Section of the Department of Education. The video recordings made during both visits were widely used in College of Education course programmes in the decade following this visits.

What contribution have NZADIE members made to Drama resource development?

A direct result of the visit of Dorothy Heathcote was the formation of the New Zealand Association for Drama in Education of which Dorothy Heathcote became patron in 1985. After this visit secondary resource development continued to take place through the working group, all of who by this stage were members of NZADIE and many were represented on its National Executive.  In 1987 Draft Guidelines were developed for Sixth Form Certificate Drama; a university entrance qualification. At the same time a major resource, related to an exploration of works of New Zealand literature through drama, was developed and eventually distributed free to all secondary schools. This resource, which was called Drama and Learning,[4] supported the National English Syllabus for Forms 3-5 and it represented a significant attempt to get the ‘ordinary’ classroom teacher to use various drama approaches to learning.

What involvement did the Australian National Association for Drama in Education, NADIE, now known as Drama Australia have in the establishment of NZADIE?

Influential in the formation of the association was the assistance given by two members of the Australian National Association for Drama in Education; John Deverall and Annie Gately. They were in New Zealand at the time of the Heathcote visits and lent their weight to arguments, which in turn led to the formation of the incorporated society. Another Australian academic and former student of Dorothy Heathcote’s, John Carroll, was the guest speaker at the inaugural conference the following year and expressed the keen hope that a joint conference between the NADIE and NZADIE could be set up.

Contact with NADIE had been strengthened by frequent visits from Australians to our drama conferences. The Australian national president, Gary Hodge was particularly interested in the idea of a joint conference.

A New Zealand group led by Sunny Amey attended the National Conference in Brisbane in October 1987 and this visit laid the foundations for the joint ‘Making Connections’ Conference which was to be held at the Auckland College of Education in January 1989. A further sign of the closeness of the relationship with the Australians at this time was the publication of a joint magazine in 1987 under the editorial initiative of Megan Shaffner in Australia and Kerry Harvey and Sally Markham in New Zealand.

Distribution of the magazine throughout Australasia further increased the profile of the Association and drama in New Zealand as did the publication which followed the joint conference. Since that time our members have continued to be regularly published in NJ, the Drama Australia journal.

The NADIE /NZADIE conference planned to focus on issues of biculturalism, multiculturalism and gender equity in drama. However national developments in educational curriculum focussed New Zealanders on issues of biculturalism and in particular the Treaty of Waitangi, and (indigenous) Maori issues in a way, which had never happened before. The conference seen as a watershed for both associations in many ways, and it has attracted on going debate and comment over the last decade.

Sunny Amey retired from her job in October 1988 and her position ceased to exist. Her retirement was marked by many speeches from well known educators who had welcomed the growth of drama in schools under her leadership, and in particular the establishment of visible drama networks throughout New Zealand.

In 1989 the new Ministry of Education replaced the old restructured Department of Education. Thereafter the emphasis shifted onto the creation of advisers who became attached to Colleges of Education.

What was the impact of the Curriculum Review?

In 1989 following the election of the Lange Labour government the entire country participated in a government sponsored review of educational policy known as `The Curriculum Review’. This led to an emphasis on self governing schools with the result that responsibility for curriculum development and teacher in service training shifted from the Ministry of Education to the schools themselves. Schools were able to `set their own priorities’, which might or might not happen to include drama.

Sixth Form Certificate drama and Higher School Certificate drama, which was the final year, non examination course, continued to grow to a point where almost a third of all secondary schools in New Zealand offered their own locally registered Sixth Form Certificate Drama Course. In response teachers began working on a trial of grade related criteria for Sixth Form drama under the leadership of Paul Bushnell who can be regularly heard today on the National Radio’s Arts programme.  In 1992 a small working party drafted guidelines for drama for the new National Certificate which was trialled in some secondary schools the following year.

The New Zealand Association For Drama in Education took an interest in those proceedings and was consulted about developments at a national level. Whilst not everyone in New Zealand was happy about the speed of those and many other educational reforms, the process of consultation with practitioners was pleasing to see. It was at that point that the trial of drama was identified as an `Essential Area of Learning’ along with other Arts such as Music, Dance and Visual Art. We had finally made it into the canon of recognised subjects; an enviable position from the point of view of those involved in U.K. education.

What developments took place in Theatre in Education?

In the early 1990’s Theatre in Education found financial survival in this country to be difficult. The Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council developed a policy which was designed to, “foster models of good practice for educational touring work and to highlight the very best contribution that touring artists can make towards meeting the specialised needs of children in schools.” 3

Professional companies with proven standards of excellence and a commitment to educational principles were to be given financial support to take theatre to students outside of the main centres. Kerry Harvey, National Coordinator for Arts Education and former president of NZADIE  was  responsible for developing an educational policy for the Arts Council.

At that time a programme of arts residencies in Colleges of Education was established to strengthen ties and understanding between artist and educator.

What developments took place in teacher training opportunities in Drama?

In 1992 Colleges of Education in Auckland, Waikato, Palmerston North, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin offered courses for students as part of their teacher training in drama in education. In addition, post graduate courses are available for teachers through the colleges both as distance learning and part time study. The courses on offer varied enormously in style and content so that not all student teachers had equal access to drama. It is interesting to reflect on where we have come to a decade later and to ask ourselves if this situation has greatly changed.

At University level there existed a postgraduate diploma in drama at Auckland University which originally had a strong interest in drama in education principles. A B.A. course in Film and Drama with a practical focus existed at Victoria University in Wellington. This course was headed by Phillip Mann, Reader in Drama. Philip Mann was particularly strong in his support for the association from its inception.  Practical course components in drama were part of the B.A. course at Otago University in Dunedin and other universities offered critical courses in drama at that time.

Drama in Education in New Zealand has greatly benefited, therefore, not only from the strong links which have been established from its inception with theatre, both amateur and professional, but also from the practical support and encouragement which it has received from government agencies, universities and colleges of education.

Teachers themselves, of course, are the `doers’ who have brought about the development of course statements, resources NCEA and most of all networks, both regional, national and international. In this country it is practising teachers who have been at the forefront of educational change and who continue to press for examples of good educational practice to be made available to all.

Without the friendship and encouragement of the international drama in education community the New Zealand Association for Drama in Education would find it difficult to develop and grow. In 1992 I wrote that: “It is significant that at a time of great pressure in New Zealand education when educational reforms are taking place that a number of teachers and drama educators have made the effort to take part in the Inaugural Conference of the International Drama in Education Association held at Porto Polytechnic in Portugal in July 1992. The New Zealand delegation was led by June Renwick, Head of Drama at Selwyn College Auckland and secretary to the New Zealand Association for Drama in Education. That delegation included, Alison Nelson, former NZADIE secretary and treasurer, Peter O’Connor, Hilari Anderson and Pid Davies.

During the past decade our association has grown in recognition, but not necessarily in numbers, despite the fact that drama is now firmly embedded in the curriculum and that the numbers of students taking drama for NCEA far exceeds that of Dance and Music.

The ‘crowded curriculum’ has forced primary schools to look for ways of doing what they have always done, integrating learning while secondary schools have been attempting to implement the curriculum across the arts for all students up to year ten.

Physical facilities for the introduction of drama vary from the impoverished to the spectacular and it is the challenge of this association to support such developments in schools so that all students can have equal access to facilities.

It is also true that despite the focus on curriculum development that play reading and the production of New Zealand plays appears to be languishing, if the sales of publications are anything to go by.

The association has moved into the digital era where communication and the sharing of ideas and resources are now possible. This year will see the development of an on line research e-journal, a joint initiative with Te Wananga O Aotearoa (Translation) the University  of New Zealand’s School of Performing Arts,   which will allow for print, video clips and still images related to Maori Performing Arts to be refereed and posted on line.

This presents our members with both a wonderful opportunity to network and to publish on line.

E hao ki te taonga pounamu! May you continue to seek the revered treasure of drama in education in all facets of your lives. Act One is over. Let Act Two begin.

No Reira,

Tena Koutou, Tena Koutou, Tena Tatou Katoa.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ADMINISTERING for excellence, Report of the Taskforce to Review Education, Wellington. 1988

AMEY, S. & BOLWELL,J. Dance and drama in New Zealand tertiary institutions. (Report to Department of Education) June 1987

The ARTS and Economic Renewal. Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council of New Zealand. Wellington. 1991

The Australia NADIE Journal Vol 12 No.1. September 1987.

Battye, S. The Impact of the 1978 and 1984 visits of Dorothy Heathcote to New Zealand on Drama in Education.  A Master’s dissertation towards an M.A. ( Education Studies), ( Unpublished) Loughborough University of Technology, U.K., April 1993.

BUSHNELL. P, R. Putting trial grade related criteria to work in sixth form certificate drama. (A Research Affiliate Project.) Education Department, University of Canterbury. Christchurch. November 1990.

CATHERWOOD, V.  Untitled. NZADIE Drama Newsletter. Vol 10 No 3. November 1988 p 2

CLASSROOM drama forms 1 to 4. Department of Education. Wellington 1973.

The CURRICULUM Review, Department of Education . Wellington 1987

DESIGNING the framework. (A discussion document about restructuring national qualifications). New Zealand Qualifications Authority. Wellington.  March 1991

The DOROTHY Heathcote Archive. http://www.partnership.mmu.ac.uk/drama/

DRAMA and learning. Learning Media, Ministry of Education,  Wellington. 1990

FRANCKS, P. Open School Bandwagon. Education. Vol 24, No 5. 1975 School Publications, Wellington, New Zealand. P6.

HARCOURT, P. A dramatic appearance. Methuen, Wellington 1978

HARVEY, K. & WHILLANS, K. Aspects of drama for learning. Kohia Teachers Centre, Auckland. 1988

HARVEY, K. et al (eds.) Drama and social change, Dorothy Heathcote 1984 lectures. Kohia Teachers Centre, Auckland 1988

HARVEY, K. Arts in education: a community perspective (A paper presented to Northern Regional Arts Council Conference) Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council New Zealand, Wellington. September 1991.

HEATHCOTE, D. Reprints from Education Magazine,  (The enabling Teacher & Excellence in teaching). Department of Education, Wellington 1984

LOMAS, A. Drama as a teaching and learning method in the classroom. Master of Philosophy Thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand 1982

MIDDLETON, S. et al. New Zealand education policy today. Allen & Unwin, Wellington 1990.

The NATIONAL Curriculum of New Zealand (A discussion document). Learning Media, Ministry of Education, Wellington. 1991.

NEALE, B. New Artists in Schools Touring Programme- Fostering Models Of Good Practice. NZADIE Drama Newsletter. Vol 15 No 1. May 1992 p 5.

NZADIE Drama Newsletter. Vol 10 No 3. November 1988 Auckland.

STATEMENT of Aims: English 3-5. Department of Education 1983.

THOMSEN, J. New Zealand drama 1930-1980. Auckland University Press. 1984.

THOSE who sailed with Cook. Department of Education video, Audio Visual Production Unit  Department, 85/120, Wellington 1985. (Available from Learning Media)

TOMORROW’S standards. (The report of the ministerial working party on assessment for better learning) Learning Media, Ministry of Education, Wellington. 1990


[1] Battye, S. (1993) The Impact of the 1978 and 1984 visits of Dorothy Heathcote to New Zealand on Drama in Education A Master’s dissertation towards an M.A. ( Education Studies), ( Unpublished) Loughborough University of Technology, U.K., April 1993.

[2] The MMU Institute of Education is one of the largest providers of teacher education in the UK. The drama section is also the home of The Dorothy Heathcote Archive which contains over 2000 theses, articles, videos and other materials relating to Heathcote’s work. http://www.partnership.mmu.ac.uk/drama/

[3] The Sunny Amey Archive which contains a huge amount of material covering the period of these visits is housed in Wellington in the National Archives of New Zealand. Jenny Whatman and I put this archive in order before its acquisition with the assistance of others from the Wellington College of Education. The archive is listed on line.

[4] DRAMA and Learning. Learning Media, Ministry of Education, Wellington. 1990

 

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